Zoe Wicomb gave this rare interview to David Robinson of the Scotsman
and gives us a glimpse of life as a mixed-race person under apartheid.
Zoe Wicomb, South Africa-born but living
in Glasgow for the last 11 years, is a writer of rare brilliance. On
the cover of her latest book, Nobel laureate Toni Morrison and double
Booker winner JM Coetzee compete to eulogise her work. She's formidably
intelligent: 'A mind like a steel trap', says the head of the Scottish
Arts Council's literature department, 'one of the brightest people you
could meet.' She is, according to the pupils she has taught creative
writing to at Strathclyde University, where Wicomb holds a professorship,
a peerless and inspiring teacher.
Yet the chances are that you won't have ever heard of her, because this
is the first British newspaper interview she has ever given. For the 30
years she's lived in Britain, that's the way she liked it, and to be honest,
it probably still is.
Zoe's third book Living
In The Light, is one of the most convincing novels
I've read all year. If she's going for the title of Scotland's greatest
unknown novelist, it's hers on a plate.
Zoe Wicomb was born in Namaqueland, a hot, arid region on the southern
fringes of the Namib desert, in 1948. The good life of white South Africa
was a long way from this sparsely populated scrubland, and the nearest
whites lived 20 miles away, in the town which also had the nearest shop.
(Not that, as coloureds, the Wicombs were allowed to enter it, only being
served from a hatch round the side). Her Afrikaans-speaking parents wanted
the best for their children, something more than working in the nearby
gypsum mine or as a domestic servant, which were the only local jobs
going. Speaking English - as no-one did for 200 miles around - wasn't
an automatic free pass to a better life, but it was a better bet than
Secondary school meant Cape Town, where she moved to live with her aunt.
A school for coloureds, followed by a university for coloureds, where
she learnt about such great non-coloureds as Chaucer, Johnson, Shakespeare
and Hardy. And where, for the first time, Zoe caught sight of her first "play-whites".
'There was a family living across the road from us, and one day they
just disappeared. Our neighbours said, 'They've left. They've turned
white'. This happened all the time'
'It's an odd phenomenon, the play-whites,' says Zoe. 'We don't even know how
many of them there are. There's no discourse, nothing in the library, because
officially they don't exist. Yet the truth of the matter, because of their history,
is that many Afrikaners are mixed race. Even Verwoerd [the founder of apartheid]
had a wife who looked African.'
Because skin colour is so variable even within the same family, legal definitions
of whiteness were absurdly tortuous. 'A white person,' the government decided
in 1950, 'is someone who in appearance obviously is or is generally accepted
as a white person, but does not include a person who, although in appearance
obviously a white person, is generally accepted as a coloured person.' Mrs Verwoerd
presumably counted as white not because she looked it but because enough people
could agree that she actually was.
'The weird thing,' says Zoe, 'was that there was this legislation for racial
purity at the same time as the whites were tacitly boosting their own numbers
by allowing some people to cross over.'
Those blurred edges of all racial groups contain their own potential tragedies.
'The newspapers were always full of stories about abandoned children found tied
up or living under the bed because their families were ashamed of them on account
of the colour of their skin,' says Zoe. 'On the other hand, when I was at school,
I remember kids in my class boasting about the members of their family who had
'turned white'.' (Given the coloureds' formal rights under apartheid to live
in South Africa, some blacks were just as keen to recategorise themselves as
So why, with such an intriguing subject (the first
time it's been dealt with in South African literary fiction) so commandingly
handled, with Toni Morrison praising her 'seductive, brilliant, precious
talent' on her book's cover, with now-published pupils like Laura Marney
and Rodge Glass lining up to credit her for helping get their writing
on the right path, just why is Zoe Wicomb, in Marney's words, 'the most
self-effacing writer I've ever met'?
She isn't, she insists, a real writer; she doesn't think of herself as
one. Apart from sabbaticals and holidays, she hardly writes at all, and
when she does, it's 'torture, painfully slow'. Her university work is
different: that's what pays the bills, that's where she finds it easy
to talk about literature, that's where she studies nothing but the very
best, like Coetzee. And she sighs, just at the thought of his so-beautifully
constructed sentences, beside which her own ... Her voice tails off.
And because the teaching, rather than the writing, is the priority in her
life, she deliberately chooses to be published by small presses, free from
the larger houses' interfering editors demanding rewrites on a whim or
from publicists drawing up an impossible round of interviews. The books,
she says, will find her own way without her helping them.
She doesn't like talking about her own life too much, but switch to South
African history or the politics of race and it's a different matter. History
played a cruel trick on her, she says: the anti-apartheid resistance movement
was weak in the late Sixties, when she was a student, and she left the
country two years before Steve Biko's black consciousness movement flared
up on the campuses. 'I was hot-headed, impatient, I just wanted to leave
the whole oppressiveness of my own culture far behind.'
In exile in London, a shy girl surprised at hearing herself speak in public,
she took up the fight against race hate. Sometimes it seemed surprisingly
close at hand: Scotland, she noted on arrival in 1989, seemed a much more
racist country than England (it's no accident that nearly all of the characters
in her novel have Scottish surnames). Yet even after all these years, she
remains unable to shake off her birth country's hold. 'I have a ghost existence
here: my whole intellectual and emotional life is in South Africa.'
While that may be understandable, the blanket of self-effacement with which
she talks about her writing seems less so.
What it all boils down to, she finally says, is this: 'I'm very, very contrary.
And I want to be in control, which is what informs my attitude to publishing,
editing, being interviewed. I set high standards too: as a reader, I don't
read any poor novels, so I'm always aware of how much my own work falls
flat by comparison. And perhaps it's because I grew up in South Africa,
and it was easy there for people like me to grow up with a consciousness
So still it lingers, the shadow of a political system so barbarous and
absurd that it becomes increasingly hard to imagine.